Objeto directo y indirecto

Subject – Who or what does the verb.

John has a cake
John tiene un pastel
I have a cake, I eat it
Yo tengo un pastel, me lo como
The house has windows
La casa tiene ventanas


Direct Object (Objeto directo)
A noun (person or thing) that is the recipient of an action. Who or what?

John has a cake for Sam
John tiene un pastel para Sam

Me       Me
Te       You
Lo/la    Him, her, it
Nos      Us
Os       You
Los/las  Them

Indirect Object (Objeto indirecto)
Receives the direct object. To or for whom?

John has a cake for Sam
John tiene un pastel para Sam

Me    Me
Te    You
Le    Him/her
Nos   Us
Os    You
Les   Them

I have a cake, I eat it
Yo tengo un pastel, me lo como
You have a cake, you eat it
Tu Tienes un pastel, te lo comes
He has a cake, he eats it
Él tiene un pastel, se (le) lo come
She has a cake, she eats it
Ella tiene un pastel, se (le) lo come
We have a cake, we eat it
Nosotros tenemos un pastel, nos lo comemos
They have a cake, they eat it
Ellos tienen un pastel, se (les) lo comen

When the direct object is referenced again as ‘it‘, ‘it‘ is an indirect object.

First person singular (me)
First person plural (us)
Second person (you)
Third person (him)
Third person (her)

Female singular
Jane threw a ball, jane threw it
Jane tiró una pelota, Jane la tiró

Female plural
Jane threw balls, Jane threw them
Jane tiró bolas, Jane las tiró

Male single
Jane threw a plate, Jane threw it
Jane tiró una plato, Jane lo tiró

Male plural
Jane threw plates, Jane threw them
Jane tiró platos, Jane los tiró


We put the indirect object in-front of the verb.
I eat the cake, it I eat
Yo como el pastel, Lo como

Juan calls me
Juan me llama
I call you
Yo te llamo
He calls us
El nos llama
I call you (plural)
Yo os llamo


I buy a dress, I buy it (dress)
Compro un vestido, Lo compro
I buy a dress for my daughter
Compro un vestido a (para) mi hija
I buy her a dress. (her – I buy – a dress)
Le compro un vestido

If we swap direct and indirect objects the indirect object always becomes ‘se‘ and goes in the first position.

I am buying it for her (her – it – I buy)
Se lo compro

Usually the context will tell you who ‘se’ is if not then repeat for emphasis.
Se lo compro a mi hija.

Future construction
I will buy a dress for her (her it I go to buy)
Se lo voy a comprar
or (I go to buy her it)
Voy a comparselo


First Person Object
Me, us
Me, nos

Second Person Object
You, you plural
Te, os

Third Person Object
Him, her, it
lo, la
Them
Los, las

http://www.spanishdict.com/answers/100017/indirect-object-pronouns

https://www.spanishdict.com/guide/direct-object-pronouns-in-spanish

https://studyspanish.com/grammar/lessons/dopro1

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